Curriculum and Material Development
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCHOOL-BASED CURRICULUM (KTSP) AND THE TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
IN SMP ANGKAS JAKARTA
( By : Paimin )
SMP Angkasa in a private education institution organized by the union of the Indonesian Air Force souldiers’ wives ( PIA ARDHIA GARINI ), located in the housing complex of the indonesian Airforce Halim Perdana Kusuma. As a private school, of course it is much influenced by the holder included the school management. The school management is conducted by the otonomy of Yayasan PIA Ardhia Garini in which the management staffs are the women of The Indonesian Air force who have less knowledge and background on education system. They sometimes run the policy influenced gy their husbands withought considering the goverment rules and the situation and condition at school.
Related to the developing curriculum, the teachers are rare getting opportunities to attend the events such as seminars, workshops, Diklat, Loka karya atc. As far as now, we get the information about curriculum from the hadmaster or the school supervisor where they only give information about the school dased curriculum in general. The teachers never get the guidance how to develop and how to implement the curriculum in teaching and learning activities.
Based on my experience and observation to the implementation of the school based curriculum in SMP Angkasa especially in teaching English as a Foreign language, The English teachers are just running the teaching and learning activities to fulfil the school programs and the adminictrasion requirement. I doubt that the English teachers know the principles of developing and implementing the school based curriculum or not. Farther more the result of the evaluation at the end of semester, the students get the scores less than the minimum standard score (KKM).
Having I studied more about Curriculum and Material Development of the school based curriculum (KTSP), I am interested to do observation on the implementation of KTSP especially on teaching English as a foreign language in SMP Angkasa. This study aims to give information to the teachers, the headmaster, and the Yayasan Ardhia Garini about the weaknesses and the strength of the implementation of the school based curriculum (KTSP) in SMP Angkasa.
- Review of Related Literature
Since 2006 (in decentralization era) Indonesia has been implementing competency base school level curriculum based on national standard of education (content and competence standards in particular) considering the goal of a certain level of education, learning experiences that should be provided to achieve the goal, the methods used to manage the learning experiences, and methods of evaluation to measure the goal achievement. The new curriculum is learners’ and competency oriented and implemented by paying attention to learners potential, development stage, needs, interest, and environment.
The new policy on curriculum, among other things, is intended to empower teachers to develop down to the learning activities relevant to the learners’ need, actual condition of the school and the environment. Central Government provides guidance in developing competency base school level curriculum and gives some regulations stated in Government Regulation (PP) No. 19, 2005 concerning National standard of Education (SNP), ( Hartoyo 2011). He also states that the developing curriculum is started by designing of syllabus, that is a specification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught and tested. The Curriculum Center at the Office of Educational Research and Development helps the schools develop their own curriculum by providing curriculum models and syllabus design that can be implemented at school level.
The syllabus in the school-based curriculum, percieved as the plan of learning process with lesson plan- RPP ( PP No. 19,2005, Articlle No.20 Chapter IV, PERMEN No. 41, 2007). PP No. 19,2005, chapter IV, article 20; depdoknas, 2006; PERMEN No. 41, 2007 state that syllabus consists of standard competence, basic standard, material, learning activities, learning indicators, assesment, time alocation and resources. The syllabus is developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education on standard content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum.
There are three main purposes of English teaching in Junior high school; 1) developing communicative competence in spoken and written language to raech functional literacy; 2)generating awareness about the nature and importance of English to improve nation’s competitiveness in global society; 3) developing student’s understanding about the realtion ship between language and culture.
The scope of English language teaching in junior high school are ; 1) discourse competence or ability to uderstand and / or produce spoken text and / or written text which is integrated comprehensively in four skills, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing to reach functional literacy level. 2) The ability to understand and create various short functional texts, monologues, as wels esei in a form of procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative and report. Variation in teaching materials are ffound in the use of cetain vocabulary, grammar and rhetoric devices. 3) Supporting competence included are; linguistic competence ( ability to use grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and writing arrangement), sociocultural competence ( ability to use speech and language act appropriately in various context of communication), strategic competence ( ability to overcome problems in communication to ensure the progress of communication ), and discourse competence ( ability to use discourse instrument ).
Based on the experience in my observation of the developing curriculum and the implementation in SMP Angkasa Jakarta, I found some cases that are not relevant to the principles of the school-based curriculum. By this writing I would like to discuss the problems faced by the school management and the teachers of English in developing curriculum, the strategies of teaching, the students’ role in learning, the assesment, and some alternative solutions.
When I interviewed the headmaster to ask him about the curriculum ( KTSP ) in this school, He gave me “ Buku Panduan KTSP” from BSNP. He told me that this one is the only curriculum they have. It means that they never develop their own curriculum as directed in KTSP Guidance. The headmaster assumes that what are stated in “ Buku Panduan KTSP” from BSNP have been totally relevant to be implemented in his school and the one is the curriculum.
Actually, nearly all the tearchers of SMP Angkasa do not understand how to develop the school-based curriculum for their own subjects, especially the english tearchers. The teachers only adopt competely the syllabus from BSNP, even the teachers are afraid to change any words in the competence standards, basic standards, indicators, materials and also the learning activities. All the teachers design their learning programs just for fulfilling the administrasion requirement in the supervision programs. When I asked the English teachers about how they develop the syllabus, they said that they only copy the syllabus form BSNP and change the names of the school name and teachers name.
Related to the learning objectives, the English teachers use the competence standards, basic competences and indicators from the syllabus of BSNP as the objectives of their taching and learning activities, but again, they are only stated in the syllabus and Lesson Plans (RPP) to fulfil the administrasion requirement. The teachers never consider the objectives in their learning activities. More over, the teachers never describe exlpicitly to the students what they should achieve after the lessons.
When I asked the teachers “ How do you prepare the materials for your teaching ?” They told me that they use a text book from a certain publisher. When I asked them” Do you learn the relevancy of the book content with the learning objectives ?” They told me that they never check it because they only get the books from “Yayasan” and they only have to use them in their teahing activities. Beside the text book, they also use “LKS” as the additional materials. Yayasan usually consider to use both the text book and LKS based on the price and commercial advantages. Yayasan will use the books and LKS if the publisher give higher discount. Sometimes, the teachers recieve text books published in a certain country in which they content the local geography, local culture, and other potential related to a certain country. Although it is not relevent to the condition of the students’ environment, the teachers still use the books as the resources in their teaching.
Beside interviewing the teachers, I also interviewed the students about their activities when they are learning English and how they practice their English. The students whom I interviewed said that they never practice speaking, they never perfom dialogue in front of the class, and they never use their English to communicate in their environment. When I asked them “ What should you do in the English lesson ?” They said that they just listen to the teacher and do the exercises from the text book. “Do the teachers speak in English goth in the classroom and outside the classroom ?” The students said that the teachers never speak English, they speak English when read the text and some practices on the text book and LKS. The teachers like translating the texts and the students listen to them or sometimes take a note.
When I asked about evaluation,” Do you usually have evaluation after a lesson ?” the students told me that sometimes they get “ulangan harian” by doing the evaluation parts of the text book and LKS, and when I confirmed to the teachers about it, they said that the evaluation parts of the text book seem appropriate and relevant to the materials that they taught to the students. As a mid term test usually the teachers make a test by gathering the quizes from the evaluation parts of the text book and LKS. At the end of semester they have “Ulangan Umum Bersama” in which they get quizes based on many resources of books. This program is held by Dinas Pendidikan Propinsi DKI Jakarta working together with MKS and MGMP Jakarta Province.
Based on the teachers observation through test analysis, they usually find only a few quizis are relevant to the materials that they have taught o their students. The teachers explained “ that is why the students always get the scores lower than KKM”
Based on this observation, we know that the implementation of KTSP in SMP Angkasa does not run well, from the designing the school curriculum that is only decided by the headmaster, to the emplementation in teanching and learning activities.
In designing the syllabus, the english teachers only adopt the example of syllabus comletely from BSNP without paying attention to learners potential, development stage, needs, interest, and environment. It is also not relevant to the principle of developing curriculum (KTSP) The syllabus should be developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education on standard content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum.
The purpose of designing syllabus done by the teachers in this school is only for fulfilling the administrasion requirement in the supervision programs. Whiles actually designing of syllabus is a specification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught and tested.
The teachers do not develop the objectives of learning, the materials, the learning activities and the evaluation, they only run their teaching based on the text book that they used to take in the classroom.
The teachers do not give any exposure and opportunities to the students to practice English especially language skills; listening, speaking, raeding and writing, they only explain and translate the text to be taught in the course. Practicing English competence is important to know how far the students achieve the objectives of the lesson.
To evaluate the students achievement, the teacher do not use the objectives as the basic consideration, but they only use evaluation part of the text book. At the end of the semester, they take the evaluation that is made by Dinas Pendidikan propinsi DKI Jakarta, without considering the relevenvcy of the test to the objectives of learning, materials, and the school condition.
- Summary and recomendation
The uderstanding on the school-based curriculum (KTSP) among the school component in SMP Angkasa is still poor, so the implementation of the curriculum does not run well. There is still poor coorporation among the school component such as the stick holder (Yayasan Ardhia Garini), the headmaster, the teachers, the school supervisor and the student parents in developing the school curriculum.
The teaching and learning activities are conducted just for fulfilling the school programs under the supervision of the goverment. The teachers do not have any awareness to improve their competence in teaching especially in understanding the school-based curriculum (KTSP)
- To “Yayasan Ardhia Garini”
I suppose that Yayasan Ardhia Garini should have some events such as work shops, seminar,”diklat” etc. to enhance the understanding on the school-based curriculum among the school component. I also suppose to Yasarini in order to give opportunities to the school management and teachers to develop, determine, and choose the material resources or they design their own material resources.
2. To the headmaster of SMP Angkasa
In developing the school curriculum the headmaster should ask all the school component to discus and design the curriculum together. The headmaster should have a supervision program to controll the implementation of the curriculum.
3. To the English teachers
In developing the curriculum and syllabus the teachers sholud consider and pay attention to learners potential, development stage, needs, interest, and environment. The teachers should determine the objectives of learning, materials, learning activities and assesment based on the competence standards and the basic competences given by the government.
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