As teachers who are always related to “ learning process “ we have known and applied some methods and approaches in teaching ; from direct method, oral-aural approach, audio lingual, and communicative approach. We have also applied many kinds of tecqnics in teaching such as modelling, recitation, role playing etc. We utilize both methods and technics to improve the quality of learning, not only to ease the learner understanding the subject matters but also to teach them their knowledge and science.
Nowadays, we have developed science and technology rapidly in all aspest of life. In science, we have developed many kinds of science in the field of economics, socials, health, politics, education and culture. On the other hand, we have also developed many kinds of technology in the field of transportation, millitery, and education included communication and information. Although science and technology have increased rapidly it will not useful for us if we can not utilize and apply them in daily life. We should study hard to have competence, to be professional and to be creative in utilizing the science and technology, as stated by Hartoyo ( 2010 )
“ Secanggih apapun tehnologi yang dimiliki, tidak akan memberi hasil yang optimal apabila SDM yang ada tidak di dengan kompetensi, profesionalisme dan kreatifitas yang diperlukan dalam pendayagunaan ilmu pengetahuan dan tehnologi.”
To fulfill the competence of the human resources especially in utilizing science and technology, it has been created a kind of learning paradigm that will be capable to follow the development. This paradigm is called E-Learning in which we condact the learning process by utilizing the technology especially electronic devises such as computer for learning instruction. Hartoyo ( 2010 ),quoted a definition of E-learning from the Department of Education of New Zealand (2004 ) :
“ Learning that is enable or supported by the use of digital tools and content. It typically involves some form of interactcity, which may include on-line interaction between the learner and their teacher. E-learning opportunities are usually accessed via the internet, though other technology such as CD-ROM are also needed.”
E-learning is also described by William D. Graciade in Wikipedia
“ As early as 1993, an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and assessment project using electronic Mail, two VAX Notes conferences and Gopher/Lynx together with several software programs that allowed students and instructor to create a Virtual Instructional Classroom Environment in Science (VICES) in Research, Education, Service & Teaching”
Further more, as qouted in Wikipedia, from Bates and Poole (2003) and the OECD (2005) said :
“ different types or forms of e-learning can be considered as a continuum, from no e-learning, i.e. no use of computers and/or the Internet for teaching and learning, through classroom aids, such as making classroom lecture Powerpoint slides available to students through a course web site or learning management system, to laptop programs, where students are required to bring laptops to class and use them as part of a face-to-face class, to hybrid learning, where classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, with more time devoted to online learning, through to fully online learning, which is a form of distance education. This classification is somewhat similar to that of the Sloan Commission reports on the status of e-learning, which refer to web enhanced, web supplemented and web dependent to reflect increasing intensity of technology use. In the Bates and Poole continuum, ‘blended learning’ can cover classroom aids, laptops and hybrid learning, while ‘distributed learning’ can incorporate either hybrid or fully online learning.”
Advantages of E-learning
By using E-learning We can get many advantages in all aspect of learning process.
A. The advantages for learners
- Easy to find the subject matter
The learners can easily find the material or information they want to study, just by typing the tittle of of the subject matter the learner will get it directly.
- Easy to find references
There are so many information resources that the learners can find in the internet supporting the subjact matter. The learners can read and learn the information from any side, so they can get the information brievely and completely.
If the presentation of the subject matter use hypermedia such as interesting deisgned text, picture, music or sound, video or animation the learners will enjoy the learning process very much, even they will not get bored.
- Efective and eficiece
Because there have been so many kinds of information and references that the learners can get in the internet, they will spend less money and time in learning. The learners do not need to buy any books as the references, to open one by one page, and go to any places such as libraries. The learners should just sit nicely in front of their computers whiles enjoy nice music they want.
We can also get some other advantages from other sides as the ones reported in wikipedia :
In the 21st century, people have to learn more than ever before. Especially for global organizations, live classroom-based training is becoming too costly and cumbersome. Even if employees had the time to attend all the courses and seminars and to read all the books and reports they should to remain up-to-date in their area of work, the cost of such learning would be prohibitive. The need to transform how organizations learn points to a more modern, efficient, and flexible alternative: eLearning. The mission of corporate eLearning is to supply the workforce with an up-to-date and cost-effective program that yields motivated, skilled, and loyal knowledge workers.
Anywhere, anytime, anyone.
The Internet can offer the logical solution for a company’s education and training objectives. Approximately 80% of the professional workforce already uses computers on the job. Technical obstacles, such as access, standards, infrastructure, and bandwidth, will not be an issue in a few years. The growth of the World Wide Web, high-capacity corporate networks, and high-speed desktop computers will make learning available to people 24 hours a day, seven days a week around the globe. This will enable businesses to distribute training and critical information to multiple locations easily and conveniently. Employees can then access training when it is convenient for them, at home or in the office.
Substantial cost savings due to elimination of travel expenses.
When delivered through technology based solutions, training is less expensive per end user due to scaleable distribution and the elimination of high salaries for trainers and consultants. The biggest benefit of eLearning, however, is that it eliminates the expense and inconvenience of getting the instructor and students in the same place. According to Training Magazine, corporations save between 50-70% when replacing instructor-led training with electronic content delivery. Opting for eLearning also means that courses can be pared into shorter sessions and spread out over several days or weeks so that the business would not lose an employee for entire days at a time. Workers can also improve productivity and use their own time more efficiently, as they no longer need to travel or fight rush-hour traffic to get to a class.
Just-in-time access to timely information.
Web-based products allow instructors to update lessons and materials across the entire network instantly. This keeps content fresh and consistent and gives students immediate access to the most current data. Information can be retrieved just before it is required, rather than being learned once in a classroom and subsequently forgotten. Training Magazine reported that technology-based training has proven to have a 50-60% better consistency of learning than traditional classroom learning (c-learning).
Higher retention of content through personalized learning.
Technology-based solutions allow more room for individual differences in learning styles. They also provide a high level of simulation that can be tailored to the learner’s level of proficiency. With 24 x 7 access, people can learn at their own pace and review course material as often as needed. Since they can customize the learning material to their own needs, students have more control over their learning process and can better understand the material, leading to a 60% faster learning curve, compared to instructor-led training. The delivery of content in smaller units, called “chunks,” contributes further to a more lasting learning effect. Whereas the average content retention rate for an instructor-led class is only 58%, the more intensive eLearning experience enhances the retention rate by 25 – 60%.1 Higher retention of the material puts a higher value on every dollar spent on training.
Improved collaboration and interactivity among students.
In times when small instructor-led classes tend to be the exception, electronic learning solutions can offer more collaboration and interaction with experts and peers as well as a higher success rate than the live alternative. Teaching and communication techniques which create an interactive online environment include case studies, story-telling, demonstrations, role-playing, simulations, streamed videos, online references, personalized coaching and mentoring, discussion groups, project teams, chat rooms, e-mail, bulletin boards, tips, tutorials, FAQs, and wizards.
Distance education can be more stimulating and encourage more critical reasoning than a traditional large instructor-led class because it allows the kind of interaction that takes place most fully in small group settings. Studies have shown that students who take online courses are typically drawn into the subject matter of the class more deeply than in a traditional course because of the discussions they get involved in.2 This engagement is further facilitated by the fact that instructors do not monopolize attention in an online environment. Another study found that online students had more peer contact with others in the class, enjoyed it more, spent more time on class work, understood the material better, and performed, on average, 20% better than students who were taught in the traditional classroom.
Online training is less intimidating than instructor-led courses.
Students taking an online course enter a risk-free environment in which they can try new things and make mistakes without exposing themselves. This characteristic is particularly valuable when trying to learn soft skills, such as leadership and decision making. A good learning program shows the consequences of students’ actions and here/why they went wrong. After a failure, students can go back and try again. This type of learning experience eliminates the embarrassment of failure in front of a group.
With all of these advantages of taking classes online, it is hard to imagine why anyone would opt to sit in a lecture to learn new information. There are online classes available free on a multitude of topics, just start surfing, find one to your liking, and start learning!
B. The advantages for teacher
- The teacher may enrich on the competence with the developing technology especially communication and information.
- The teacher can conduct and controll the learning activities flexibly. The teachers do not need to come to the class and have instruction, on the other hand, they need only preparing the subject matters and publish it to the internet.
- The teachers can improve the information necessarily, even they can change the form, design or everything they need.
- The teachers can give some comment and guidence classically or individually to the learners. By using the internet the teachers can make interaction to the learners by chatting, so the teachers can give more explanation on subject matter if the learners get some troubles in learning.
Disadvantages of E-learning
Beside the advantages such as discussed in the above section, we shall look at the other side of e-learning ( Disadvantages of E-learning )
- Disadvatages for learner
- For the learners who have no motivation,they will be left behind because the teacher can not pay attention and motivate them directly.
- For the slower learners, they will lost and confuse to follow the activities
- Posted in: Mid semester test